Airway management in hospital. Russian Federation of anesthesiologists and reanimatologists guidelines (second edition, 2018)

A.A. Andreenko1, E.L. Dolbneva2, V.I. Stamov3

1 FGBVOU VO “Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov” Ministry of Defence of Russia, Saint-Petersburg

2 FGBNU RNCH named by acad. B.V. Petrovsky, Moscow

3 UKB № 2 FGAOU VO “Moscow State Medical University named after I.M. Sechenov” Ministry of Health of Russia, Moscow

For correspondence: Aleksander A. Andreenko — Cand. Med. Sciences, Assistant Professor, Deputy Head of the Department of Anesthesiology and Resuscitation, FGBVOU VO “Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov” Ministry of Defence of Russia, Saint-Petersburg; e-mail:

For citation: Andreenko AA, Dolbneva EL, Stamov VI. Airway management in hospital. Russian Federation of anesthesiologists and reanimatologists guidelines (second edition, 2018). Alexander Saltanov Intensive Care Herald. 2019;2:7-31.

DOI: 10.21320/1818-474X-2019-2-7-31


The review presents the clinical guidelines of the Federation of Anaesthesiology and Resuscitation specialists of Russia, revised in 2018. The recommendations are based on a review of publications and modern international guidelines of the Difficult Airway Society (DAS, 2015), American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA, 2013), the European Society of Anesthesiologists (ESA, 2018).

“Difficult airways” are encountered relatively infrequently in modern anesthesia practice, but if it is impossible to ensure adequate oxygenation of patients, they lead to post-hypoxic brain damage or circulatory arrest. Current requirements for patient safety during anesthesia determine the need for a thorough assessment of patients before surgery, identification of prognostic signs of difficult ventilation through a face mask or supraglottic airway device, difficult laryngoscopy and tracheal intubation, difficult cricothyrotomy. As a result of the examination, the anesthesiologist is obliged to formulate the main and reserve action plan, prepare the necessary equipment, and involve specialists if necessary.

The recommendations provide evidence of the effectiveness of modern devices for ventilation and tracheal intubation. Algorithms for making decisions and actions in various situations with predictable and unpredictable “difficult airways” in patients with different risks of aspiration are proposed. An algorithm for preparing, predicting possible complications and performing extubation of the trachea is also proposed. The recommendations presented in the review are aimed at achieving the goal of increasing patient safety during general anesthesia by reducing the risk of developing critical disorders of gas exchange due to airway management problems.

Keywords: tracheal intubation, difficult airways, difficult mask ventilation, difficult laryngoscopy, difficult intubation, supraglottic airway devices, cricothyrotomy, failed intubation

Received: 25.02.2019

Accepted: 26.03.2019


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