The influence of anesthesia components on systemic inflammatory response during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Article

R.R. Adzhigaliev1, А.E. Вautin2, V.V. Рasyuga1

1 FSBI “Federal Center for Cardiovascular Surgery” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federatio., Astrakhan, Russia

2 FSBI “Almazov National Medical Research Centre” of the Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg, Russia

For correspondence: Ruslan R. Adzhigaliev — anesthesiologist and emergency physician of anesthesiology and intensive care department, Astrakhan; e-mail:

For citation: Adzhigaliev RR, Вautin АE, Рasyuga VV. The influence of anesthesia components on systemic inflammatory response during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Article. Annals of Critical Care. 2019;4:73–80.

DOI: 10.21320/1818-474X-2019-4-73-80


Background. There are some experimental and clinical data indicating that propofol and morphine may to reduce systemic inflammatory response (SIR) after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB).

Objectives. To study the impact of anesthetics and opioids on the SIR associated with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Materials and methods. The studies examined the dynamic concentration of tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) before CPB, 1, 3 and 24 hours after the end of CPB in 119 patients randomized in four groups. Patients of the first group received sevoflurane and fentanyl, patients of the second group received sevoflurane and morphine, patients of the third group received propofol and fentanyl, patients of the fourth group received propofol and morphine.

Results. There was found increase in cytokine level in 1 hour after CPB. In the fourth group concentration of markers was lower versus the other groups. Significant differences were found with group 1 (sevoflurane and fentanyl) in the concentration of IL-6 after 3 hours (p = 0.004) and after 24 hours (p = 0.018); IL-8 after 1 hour (p = 0.003); TNF after 1 hour (p = 0.001) and after 3 hours (p = 0.001). In the fourth group (propofol and morphine) compared with group 1 (sevoflurane and fentanyl) there was lower body temperature in 4 hours after surgery (p = 0.005) and a lower leukocyte count on the 3rd day – 8,2 (7–11,4) ×109/l versus 11,1 (9–12,6) ×109/l (p = 0,005), there was less length of the ICU stay — 24 (21–29) hours versus 44 (23–71) hours (p = 0.013) and the frequency of use of vasoactive medications is 13.3 % versus 46.7 % (p = 0.02).

Conclusion. Our results showed the ability of propofol and morphine to reduce the manifestations of a systemic inflammatory response throughout cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass.

Keywords: cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, propofol, sevoflurane, morphine, fentanyl, systemic inflammatory response

Received: 30.08.2019

Accepted: 05.11.2019


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About efficiency of the pharmacological scores as a predictors of outcomes after cardiac surgery

A.E. Bautin, A.V. Ksendikova, S.S. Belolipetskiy, N.R. Abutalimova, A.O. Marichev, A.V. Naimushin, V.L. Etin, A.M. Radovskiy, L.I. Karpova, V.K. Grebennik, M.L. Gordeev

Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St. Petersburg

For correspondence: Andrei E. Bautin, MD. PhD, Head of research division in anesthesiology and intensive care, Almazov National Medical Research Centre, St. Petersburg; e-mail:, tel. +79217539110

For citation: Bautin AE, Ksendikova AV, Belolipetskiy SS, Abutalimova NR, Marichev AO, Naimushin AV, Etin VL, Radovskiy AM, Karpova LI, Grebennik VK, Gordeev ML. About efficiency of the pharmacological scores as a predictors of outcomes after cardiac surgery. Alexander Saltanov Intensive Care Herald. 2019;2:66–74.

DOI: 10.21320/1818-474X-2019-2-66-74


Pharmacological scores, such as inotropic score (IS) and vasoactive-inotropic score (VIS) were created to quantify doses of vasoactive and inotropic drugs. The number of studies where IS and VIS were used for evaluation of postoperative period of adult patients after cardiac surgery is small.

Objective: to estimate IS and VIS as an approach for monitoring of the hemodynamic profile and clinical outcomes in the early postoperative period of cardiac surgery.

Methods. The study involved 144 patients older than 18 years who underwent cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). In perioperative period we measured cardiac output using a Swan-Ganz catheter with the calculation of central hemodynamic parameters, and also VIS and IS wcre calculated. We evaluated the prognostic value of these pharmacological scores in the development of complications of the early postoperative period, as well as their correlation with the duration of respiratory support, the length of stay in the ICU, and total hospital time.

Results. IS ≥ 10 significantly associated with prolonged respiratory support, a long stay in the ICU and with a mortality rate of 28.6 %. Patients with IS ≥ 10 are characterized by a violation of tissue perfusion, main cause of which may be a low cardiac output syndrome. IS ≥ 10 can be used as criteria for the low cardiac output syndrome with impaired organ perfusion. The use of this pharmacological score as a predictor of adverse clinical outcomes and increased mortality is justified. The hemodynamic profile of patients with VIS ≥ 10 is characterized by the absence of signs of cardiac output decrease and normal organ perfusion. It has low prognostic significance for the adverse postoperative clinical outcomes and should not be used as perioperative criteria for low cardiac output. In addition, VIS ≥ 10 requires careful use as a predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes and mortality.

Keywords: Vasoactive-inotropic score, inotropic score, cardiac surgery, cardiopulmonary bypass, low cardiac output syndrome, vasoplegia syndrome, perioperative period, cardiac anesthesiology

Received: 11.03.2019

Accepted: 26.03.2019


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Continuous Monitoring of Venous Lactate and Glucose Using Intravascular Microdialysis During Perioperative Period in High-risk Cardiac Surgery

P.I. Lenkin1, 2, A.A. Ushakov1, M.Y. Kirov1, 2

1Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk

2Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, City Hospital 1 of Arkhangelsk

For correspondence: Lenkin Pavel I. — Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Northern State Medical University, Arkhangelsk; e-mail:

For citation: Lenkin PI, Ushakov AA, Kirov MY. Continuous Monitoring of Venous Lactate and Glucose Using Intravascular Microdialysis During Perioperative Period in High-risk Cardiac Surgery. Intensive Care Herald. 2016;4:72–77.

We present two clinical cases of the successful application of a novel technique for continuous lactate and glucose monitoring using intravascular microdialysis during perioperative period in high-risk cardiac surgery.

Keywords: lactate, intravascular microdialysis, monitoring, cardiac surgery

Received: 06.12.2016


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