Возрастные изменения физиологии систем кровообращения и дыхания и особенности анестезиологического обеспечения пациентам старше 60 лет
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Ключевые слова

возрастные изменения физиологии систем кровообращения и дыхания
особенности проведения анестезии пациентам старше 60 лет

Как цитировать

Куклин В.Н. Возрастные изменения физиологии систем кровообращения и дыхания и особенности анестезиологического обеспечения пациентам старше 60 лет. Вестник интенсивной терапии имени А.И. Салтанова. 2019;(4):47–57. doi:10.21320/1818-474X-2019-4-47-57.

Статистика

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Аннотация

Наличие сопутствующей патологии и возрастные физиологические изменения в системе кровообращения и дыхания являются основными причинами увеличения послеоперационных осложнений и смертности у лиц старше 60 лет. Артериальная гипертония обычно дебютирует в возрасте старше 50 лет. Согласно рекомендациям большинства анестезиологических сообществ, артериальное давление (АД) выше 180/110 мм рт. ст. является основанием для отмены плановой хирургической операции. Однако до сих пор не представлено ни одного убедительного доказательства того, что высокое предоперационное АД, как изолированный фактор, приводит к увеличению количества осложнений и ранней летальности. В то же время низкое АД, как до операции, так и/или в ходе анестезии, является доказанным фактором увеличения количества послеоперационных осложнений и 30-дневной летальности. Хирургические операции, связанные с высоким риском быстрого развития артериальной гипотонии, требуют использования инвазивного измерения АД, потому как даже кратковременные понижения АД в интервалах между неинвазивными измерениями могут привести к развитию ишемических повреждений в жизненно важных органах. До сих пор нет убедительных доказательств преимущества одного вида наркоза над другим в плане развития периоперационной артериальной гипотензии (ПАГ) и/или послеоперационной пневмонии у больных старше 60 лет. С точки зрения патогенеза ПАГ (вазодилатация артериол и венул) у нормоволемичных пациентов необходимо возмещать недостающий норадреналин, а не корригировать ее внутривенным введением жидкости. При высоком риске развития ПАГ необходимо начинать инфузию норадреналина непосредственно в ходе вводного наркоза. У пациентов, получавших мышечные релаксанты, риск развития послеоперационной пневмонии вырастает в 1,79 раза, а у пациентов, получивших мышечные релаксанты без последующей декураризации, этот риск увеличивается в 2,26 раза. Ранняя мобилизация пожилых пациентов позволяет избежать большинства послеоперационных осложнений.
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