Perioperative management of patients with respiratory failure: methodological recommendations of the All-Russian public organization “Federation of Anesthesiologists and Reanimatologists”
#2022-4
PDF_2022-4_7-23 (Русский)
HTML_2022-4_7-23 (Русский)

Keywords

respiratory insufficiency
perioperative period
anesthesia
lung diseases
risk factors
critical care
Russia

How to Cite

Zabolotskikh IB, Gritsan AI, Kirov MY, Kuzovlev AN, Lebedinskii KM, Mazurok VA, Protsenko DN, Trembach NV, Shadrin RV, Yaroshetskiy AI Perioperative management of patients with respiratory failure: methodological recommendations of the All-Russian public organization “Federation of Anesthesiologists and Reanimatologists”. Annals of Critical Care. 2022;(4):7–23. doi:10.21320/1818-474X-2022-4-7-23.

Statistic

Abstract Views: 100
PDF_2022-4_7-23 (Русский) Downloads: 35
HTML_2022-4_7-23 (Русский) Downloads: 11
Plum Analytics

Language

English Русский

Social Networks

Keywords

Up

Abstract

Perioperative respiratory complications are one of the main problems in anesthesiology and intensive care, in some areas of surgery they occupy the first place in the structure of all complications of the perioperative period. Initial respiratory failure, as well as the presence of disorders of respiratory functions increase the risk of its development, often leading to an unfavorable outcome of the disease. The recommendations on perioperative management of patients with respiratory failure include modern standards of preoperative assessment of risk factors for respiratory insufficiency, prevention and treatment of perioperative respiratory disorders in Russian Federation. The recommendations describe the principles of diagnosis of respiratory failure, the choice of anesthesia in concomitant lung diseases, the basics of protective ventilation and prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications.
https://doi.org/10.21320/1818-474X-2022-4-7-23
PDF_2022-4_7-23 (Русский)
HTML_2022-4_7-23 (Русский)

References

  1. Sameed M., Choi H., Auron M., et al. Preoperative Pulmonary Risk Assessment. Respir Care. 2021; 66(7): 1150–66. DOI: 10.4187/respcare.09154
  2. Hong C.M., Galvagno S.M. Jr. Patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Med Clin North Am. 2013; 97(6): 1095–7. DOI: 10.1016/j.mcna.2013.06.001
  3. Chandler D., Mosieri C., Kallurkar A., et al. Perioperative strategies for the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2020; 34(2): 153–66. DOI: 10.1016/j.bpa.2020.04.011
  4. Oga T., Tsukino M., Hajiro T., et al. Analysis of longitudinal changes in dyspnea of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational study. Respir Res. 2012; 13(1): 85. DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-13-85
  5. Perez T., Burgel P.R., Paillasseur J.L., et al. Modified Medical Research Council scale vs Baseline Dyspnea Index to evaluate dyspnea in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2015; 10: 1663–72. DOI: 10.2147/COPD.S82408
  6. Licker M., Schweizer A., Ellenberger C., et al. Perioperative medical management of patients with COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2007; 2(4): 493–515.
  7. Bernstein W.K. Pulmonary function testing. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2012; 25(1): 11–6. DOI: 10.1097/ACO.0b013e32834e7ad2
  8. Tao J., Kurup P. Obstructive respiratory disease. In: Stoeltings anesthesia and co-existing diseases. 2017, 7th ed.
  9. Bapoje S.R., Whitaker J.F., Schulz T., et al. Preoperative evaluation of the patient with pulmonary disease. Chest. 2007; 132(5): 1637–45. DOI: 10.1378/chest.07-0347
  10. Arozullah A.M., Khuri S.F., Henderson W.G., et al. Development and validation of a multifactorial risk index for predicting postoperative pneumonia after major noncardiac surgery. Ann Intern Med. 2001; 135(10): 847–57. DOI: 10.7326/0003-4819-135-10-200111200-00005
  11. Cullen A., Ferguson A. Perioperative management of the severely obese patient: a selective pathophysiological review. Can J Anaesth. 2012; 59(10): 974–96. DOI: 10.1007/s12630-012-9760-2
  12. Donohoe C.L., Feeney C., Carey M.F., et al. Perioperative evaluation of the obese patient. J Clin Anesth. 2011; 23(7): 575–86. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2011.06.005
  13. Nafiu O.O., Ramachandran S.K., Ackwerh R., et al. Factors associated with and consequences of unplanned post-operative intubation in elderly vascular and general surgery patients. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011; 28(3): 220–4. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e328342659c
  14. Cartin-Ceba R., Sprung J., Gajic O, et al. The Aging Respiratory System: Anesthetic Strategies to Minimize Perioperative Pulmonary Complications. In: Silverstein, J.H., Rooke, G.A., Reves, J.G., McLeskey, C.H. (eds). Geriatric Anesthesiology. Springer, New York, NY, 2008. DOI: 10.1007/978-0-387-72527-7_11
  15. Güldner A., Kiss T., Serpa Neto A., et al. Intraoperative protective mechanical ventilation for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications: a comprehensive review of the role of tidal volume, positive end-expiratory pressure, and lung recruitment maneuvers. Anesthesiology. 2015; 123(3): 692–713. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000754
  16. Sabaté S., Mazo V., Canet J. Predicting postoperative pulmonary complications: implications for outcomes and costs. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2014; 27(2): 201–9. DOI: 10.1097/ACO.0000000000000045
  17. McPherson K., Stephens R. Postoperative respiratory complications. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2016; 77(4): C60– DOI: 10.12968/hmed.2016.77.4.C60
  18. Bishop M.J., Cheney F.W. Anesthesia for patients with asthma. Low risk but not no risk. Anesthesiology. 1996; 85(3): 455–6. DOI: 10.1097/00000542-199609000-00001
  19. Nagase T. Pathophysiology of peripheral airway obstruction underlying COPD. Nihon Rinsho. 2011 Oct; 69(10): 1708–10. [Japanese]
  20. Duggappa D.R., Rao G.V., Kannan S. Anaesthesia for patient with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Indian J Anaesth. 2015; 59(9): 574–83. DOI: 10.4103/0019–5049.165859
  21. Kaw R., Chung F., Pasupuleti V., et al. Meta-analysis of the association between obstructive sleep apnoea and postoperative outcome. Br J Anaesth. 2012; 109(6): 897–906. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aes308
  22. Kurup V. Respiratory disease. In: Hines R.I., Marschall K.E., eds. Anesthesia and CO-Existing Disease. 5th ed. Philadelphia: Churchill Livingstone, 2008; 161–97.
  23. Ferreyra G., Long Y., Ranieri V.M. Respiratory complications after major surgery. Curr Opin Crit Care. 2009; 15(4): 342–8. DOI:1097/MCC.0b013e32832e0669
  24. Moppett I.K. Resriratory risk. In: Consent, benett and risk in anesthetic practice. 2007. Ch. 12.
  25. Brooks-Brunn J.A. Predictors of postoperative pulmonary complications following abdominal surgery. Chest. 1997; 111(3): 564–71. DOI:1378/chest.111.3.564
  26. Berdah S.V., Picaud R., Jammes Y. Surface diaphragmatic electromyogram changes after laparotomy. Clin Physiol Funct Imaging. 2002; 22(2): 157–60. DOI: 10.1046/j.1365-2281.2002.00406.x
  27. Yang C.K., Teng A., Lee D.Y., et al. Pulmonary complications after major abdominal surgery: National Surgical Quality Improvement Program analysis. J Surg Res. 2015; 198(2): 441–9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jss.2015.03.028
  28. Zacks S.L., Sandler R.S., Rutledge R., et al. A population-based cohort study comparing laparoscopic cholecystectomy and open cholecystectomy. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002; 97(2): 334–40. DOI: 10.1111/j.1572-0241.2002.05466.x
  29. Guller U., Jain N., Hervey S., et al. Laparoscopic vs open colectomy: outcomes comparison based on large nationwide databases. Arch Surg. 2003; 138(11): 1179–86. DOI: 10.1001/archsurg.138.11.1179
  30. Canet J., Sabaté S., Mazo V., et al. Development and validation of a score to predict postoperative respiratory failure in a multicentre European cohort: A prospective, observational study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2015; 32(7): 458–70. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0000000000000223
  31. Lakshminarasimhachar A., Smetana G.W. Preoperative Evaluation: Estimation of Pulmonary Risk. Anesthesiol Clin. 2016; 34(1): 71–88. DOI: 10.1016/j.anclin.2015.10.007
  32. COVIDSurg Collaborative; GlobalSurg Collaborative. Timing of surgery following SARS-CoV-2 infection: an international prospective cohort study. Anaesthesia. 2021; 76(6): 748–58. DOI: 10.1111/anae.15458
  33. Wong J., Lam D.P., Abrishami A., et al. Short-term preoperative smoking cessation and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Can J Anaesth. 2012; 59(3): 268–79. DOI: 10.1007/s12630-011-9652-x
  34. Gupta H., Ramanan B., Gupta P.K., et al. Impact of COPD on postoperative outcomes: results from a national database. Chest. 2013; 143(6): 1599–1606. DOI: 10.1378/chest.12-1499
  35. Grønkjær M., Eliasen M., Skov-Ettrup L.S., et al. Preoperative smoking status and postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg. 2014; 259(1): 52–71. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182911913
  36. Bingol H., Cingoz F., Balkan A., et al. The effect of oral prednisolone with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing coronary artery bypass surgery. J Card Surg. 2005; 20(3): 252–56. DOI: 10.1111/j.1540-8191.2005.200392.x
  37. Starobin D., Kramer M.R., Garty M., et al. Morbidity associated with systemic corticosteroid preparation for coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case control study. J Cardiothorac Surg. 2007; 2: 25. DOI: 10.1186/1749-8090-2-25
  38. Bölükbas S., Eberlein M., Eckhoff J., et al. Short-term effects of inhalative tiotropium/formoterol/budenoside versus tiotropium/formoterol in patients with newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease requiring surgery for lung cancer: a prospective randomized trial. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2011; 39(6): 995–1000. DOI: 10.1016/j.ejcts.2010.09.025
  39. Suzuki H., Sekine Y., Yoshida S., et al. Efficacy of perioperative administration of long-acting bronchodilator on postoperative pulmonary function and quality of life in lung cancer patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Preliminary results of a randomized control study. Surg Today. 2010; 40(10): 923–30. DOI: 10.1007/s00595-009-4196-1
  40. Mikami Y., Jo T., Matsuzaki H., et al. Preoperative intervention with long-acting bronchodilators for the reduction of postoperative pulmonary complications in untreated patients with obstructive lung disease. Clin Respir J. 2020; 14(2): 92–101. DOI: 10.1111/crj.13105
  41. Hedenstierna G., Edmark L., Aherdan K.K. Time to reconsider the pre-oxygenation during induction of anaesthesia. Minerva Anestesiol. 2000; 66(5): 293–6.
  42. Edmark L., Kostova-Aherdan K., Enlund M., et al. Optimal oxygen concentration during induction of general anesthesia. Anesthesiology. 2003; 98(1): 28–33. DOI: 10.1097/00000542-200301000-00008
  43. Edmark L., Auner U., Hallén J., et al. A ventilation strategy during general anaesthesia to reduce postoperative atelectasis. Ups J Med Sci. 2014; 119(3): 242–50. DOI: 10.3109/03009734.2014.909546
  44. Marik P.E. Aspiration pneumonia and pneumonitis. In: Abraham E., Vincent J.L., Kochanek P., et al. Textbook of Critical Care Medicine. Fifth Edition. Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders, 2005; Chapter 76: 581–6.
  45. КингУ. Аспирация желудочного содержимого. Русская версия журнала Update in Anaesthesia. 2012; 26(1): 33–6. [King W. Aspiration of gastric contents. In: Update in Anaesthesia, Russian edition of journal. 2012; 26(1): 33–6. (In Russ)]
  46. Smith I., Kranke P., Murat I., et al. Perioperative fasting in adults and children: guidelines from the European Society of Anaesthesiology. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2011; 28(8): 556–69. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0b013e3283495ba1
  47. Henderson J. Airway Management in the Adult. In: Miller R.D., Eriksson L.I., Wiener-Kronish J.P., Young W.L., eds. Miller’s Anesthesia, 7th Ed. Philadelphia: Churchill-Livingstone Elsevier; 1573–610. DOI: 10.1016/b978–0-443-06959-8.00050-9
  48. СтамовВ.И. Анестезия в абдоминальной хирургии и колопроктологии. В кн.: Анестезиология: национальное руководство: Под ред. А.А. Бунятяна, В.М. Мизикова. Гл. М.: ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2011: 699–748. [Stamov V.I. Anesthesia in abdominal surgery and coloproctology. In: Anesthesiology: national manual. Edited by A.A. Bunatyan, V.M. Mizikov. Ch. 34. M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2011: 699–748. (In Russ)]
  49. Jones P.M., Turkstra T.P., Armstrong K.P., et al. Comparison of a single-use GlideScope Cobalt videolaryngoscope with a conventional GlideScope for orotracheal intubation. Can J Anaesth. 2010; 57(1): 18–23. DOI: 10.1007/s12630-009-9204-9
  50. Neilipovitz D.T., Crosby E.T. No evidence for decreased incidence of aspiration after rapid sequence induction. Can J Anaesth. 2007; 54(9): 748–64. DOI: 10.1007/BF03026872
  51. Packer M.Аспирация. В кн.: Дюк Д. Секреты анестезии. Пер. с англ. под общ. ред. А.П. Зильбера, В.В. Мальцева. Гл. 43. М.: МЕДпресс-информ, 2005: 257–60. [Packer M. In: Dukeʼs Anesthesia Secrets, translated Russian edition. Edited by A.P. Zilber, V.V. Maltsev. Ch. 43. M.: MEDpress-inform: 2005; 257–60. (In Russ)]
  52. Гурьянов В.А. Предоперационное обследование. Операционно-анестезиологический риск. В кн.: Анестезиология: национальное руководство. Под ред. А.А. Бунятяна, В.М. Мизикова. Гл. М.: ГЭОТАР-Медиа, 2011: 448–67. [Guryanov V.A. Preoperative examination. Surgery and anesthetic risk. In: Anesthesiology: national manual. Edited by A.A. Bunatyan, V.M. Mizikov. Ch. 24. M.: GEOTAR-Media, 2011: 448–67. (In Russ)]
  53. Perouansky M., Pearce R.A., Hemmings H.C. Jr. Inhaled anesthetics: mechanisms of action. In: Miller R.D., ed. Millerʼs anesthesia. 7th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2010. Ch. 20.
  54. Reves J.G., Glass P.S. A., Lubarsky D.A., et al. Intravenous anesthetics. In: Miller R.D., ed. Millerʼs anesthesia. 7-th ed. Philadelphia: Elsevier Churchill Livingstone, 2010. Ch. 26.
  55. Deng Q.W., Tan W.C., Zhao B.C., et al. Intraoperative ventilation strategies to prevent postoperative pulmonary complications: a network meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Anaesth. 2020; 124(3): 324–35. DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.10.024
  56. Futier E., Constantin J.M., Paugam-Burtz C., et al. A trial of intraoperative low-tidal-volume ventilation in abdominal surgery. N Engl J Med. 2013; 369(5): 428–37. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1301082
  57. Liu J., Meng Z., Lv R., et al. Effect of intraoperative lung-protective mechanical ventilation on pulmonary oxygenation function and postoperative pulmonary complications after laparoscopic radical gastrectomy. Braz J Med Biol Res. 2019; 52(6): e8523. DOI: 10.1590/1414-431×20198523
  58. Hans G.A., Sottiaux T.M., Lamy M.L., et al. Ventilatory management during routine general anaesthesia. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009; 26(1): 1–8. DOI: 10.1097/EJA.0b000e000000f1fb
  59. Odor P.M., Bampoe S., Gilhooly D., et al. Perioperative interventions for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2020; 368:.m540. DOI: 10.1136/bmj.m540
  60. Karalapillai D., Weinberg L., Peyton P., et al. Effect of Intraoperative Low Tidal Volume vs Conventional Tidal Volume on Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Patients Undergoing Major Surgery: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2020; 324(9): 848–58. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2020.12866
  61. Levin M.A., McCormick P.J., Lin H.M., et al. Low intraoperative tidal volume ventilation with minimal PEEP is associated with increased mortality. Br J Anaesth. 2014; 113(1): 97–108. DOI: 10.1093/bja/aeu054
  62. Cho S., Oh H.W., Choi M.H., et al. Effects of Intraoperative Ventilation Strategy on Perioperative Atelectasis Assessed by Lung Ultrasonography in Patients Undergoing Open Abdominal Surgery: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study. J Korean Med Sci. 2020; 35(39): e327. DOI: 10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e327
  63. Cui Y., Cao R., Li G., et al. The effect of lung recruitment maneuvers on post-operative pulmonary complications for patients undergoing general anesthesia: A meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2019; 14(5): DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217405
  64. Writing Committee for the PROBESE Collaborative Group of the PROtective VEntilation Network (PROVEnet) for the Clinical Trial Network of the European Society of Anaesthesiology, Bluth T., Serpa Neto A., et al. Effect of Intraoperative High Positive End-Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) With Recruitment Maneuvers vs Low PEEP on Postoperative Pulmonary Complications in Obese Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2019; 321(23): 2292–305. DOI: 10.1001/jama.2019.7505
  65. Schmidt A.P., Marques A.J., Reinstein A.R., et al. Effects of protective mechanical ventilation during general anesthesia in patients undergoing peripheral vascular surgery: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Anesth. 2020; 61: 109656. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2019.109656
  66. Zhao H., Li L., Yang G., et al. Postoperative outcomes of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019; 98(6): e14388. DOI: 10.1097/MD.0000000000014388
  67. Ferrando C., Aldecoa C., Unzueta C., et al. Effects of oxygen on post-surgical infections during an individualised perioperative open-lung ventilatory strategy: a randomised controlled trial. Br J Anaesth. 2020; 124(1): 110–20. DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.10.009
  68. Wetterslev J., Meyhoff C.S., Jørgensen L.N., et al. The effects of high perioperative inspiratory oxygen fraction for adult surgical patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015; 2015(6): DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD008884.pub2
  69. Shaffer S.K., Tubog T.D., Kane T.D., et al. Supplemental Oxygen and Surgical Site Infection in Colorectal Surgery: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. AANA J. 2021; 89(3): 245–53.
  70. Oldman A.H., Martin D.S., Feelisch M., et al. Effects of perioperative oxygen concentration on oxidative stress in adult surgical patients: a systematic review. Br J Anaesth. 2021; 126(3): 622–32. DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2020.09.050
  71. Li X.F., Jiang D., Jiang Y.L., et al. Comparison of low and high inspiratory oxygen fraction added to lung-protective ventilation on postoperative pulmonary complications after abdominal surgery: A randomized controlled trial. J Clin Anesth. 2020; 67: 110009. DOI: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2020.110009
  72. Yang S.S., Wang N.N., Postonogova T., et al. Intravenous lidocaine to prevent postoperative airway complications in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth. 2020; 124(3): 314–23. DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2019.11.033
  73. Liu S.S., Wu C.L. Effect of postoperative analgesia on major postoperative complications: a systematic update of the evidence. Anesth Analg. 2007; 104(3): 689–702. DOI: 10.1213/01.ane.0000255040.71600.41
  74. Park W.Y., Thompson J.S., Lee K.K. Effect of epidural anesthesia and analgesia on perioperative outcome: a randomized, controlled Veterans Affairs cooperative study. Ann Surg. 2001; 234(4): 560–71. DOI: 10.1097/00000658-200110000-00015
  75. Weijs T.J., Ruurda J.P., Nieuwenhuijzen G.A., et al. Strategies to reduce pulmonary complications after esophagectomy. World J Gastroenterol. 2013; 19(39): 6509–14. DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v19.i39.6509
  76. Amini N., Kim Y., Hyder O., et al. A nationwide analysis of the use and outcomes of perioperative epidural analgesia in patients undergoing hepatic and pancreatic surgery. Am J Surg. 2015; 210(3): 483–91. DOI: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2015.04.009
  77. Eikermann M., Blobner M., Groeben H., et al. Postoperative upper airway obstruction after recovery of the train of four ratio of the adductor pollicis muscle from neuromuscular blockade. Anesth Analg. 2006; 102(3): 937–42. DOI: 10.1213/01.ane.0000195233.80166.14
  78. Baillard C., Gehan G., Reboul-Marty J., et al. Residual curarization in the recovery room after vecuronium. Br J Anaesth. 2000; 84(3): 394–5. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.bja.a013445
  79. Adembesa I., Mungʼayi V., Premji Z., et al. A randomized control trial comparing train of four ratio > 0.9 to clinical assessment of return of neuromuscular function before endotracheal extubation on critical respiratory events in adult patients undergoing elective surgery at a tertiary hospital in Nairobi. Afr Health Sci. 2018; 18(3): 807–16. DOI: 10.4314/ahs.v18i3.40
  80. Murphy G.S., Szokol J.W., Marymont J.H., et al. Intraoperative acceleromyographic monitoring reduces the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade and adverse respiratory events in the postanesthesia care unit. Anesthesiology. 2008; 109(3): 389–98. DOI: 10.1097/ALN.0b013e318182af3b
  81. Chaudhuri D., Granton D., Wang D.X., et al. High-Flow Nasal Cannula in the Immediate Postoperative Period: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Chest. 2020; 158(5): 1934–46. DOI: 10.1016/j.chest.2020.06.038
  82. Xiang G.L., Wu Q.H., Xie L., et al. High flow nasal cannula versus conventional oxygen therapy in postoperative patients at high risk for pulmonary complications: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Clin Pract. 2021; 75(3): e13828. DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.13828
  83. Kokotovic D., Berkfors A., Gögenur I., et al. The effect of postoperative respiratory and mobilization interventions on postoperative complications following abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 2021; 47(4): 975–90. DOI: 10.1007/s00068-020-01522-x
  84. Ferreyra G.P., Baussano I., Squadrone V., et al. Continuous positive airway pressure for treatment of respiratory complications after abdominal surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Surg. 2008; 247(4): 617–26. DOI: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3181675829
  85. Carron M., Zarantonello F., Tellaroli P., et al. Perioperative noninvasive ventilation in obese patients: a qualitative review and meta-analysis. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2016; 12(3): 681–91. DOI: 10.1016/j.soard.2015.12.013
  86. Hui S., Fowler A.J., Cashmore R.M.J., et al. Routine postoperative noninvasive respiratory support and pneumonia after elective surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. Br J Anaesth. 2022; 128(2): 363–74. DOI: 10.1016/j.bja.2021.10.047
Creative Commons License

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Copyright (c) 2022 ANNALS OF CRITICAL CARE

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.